• Geopolitics

    In this part, I am going to explain you all facts about Geopolitics. But, to begin, I let you read a brief presentation of Ireland.


    Ireland is an island, the third-largest island in Europe. It is located in the North Atlantic to the west of Great Britain. Ireland is divided in 2 parts: the Republic of Ireland and the part of United Kingdom in Northern Ireland. This country has a total area of 84 421 km²: about 70 282 km² for the Republic of Ireland and 14 139 km² for the Northern Ireland.

    The main religion in Ireland is Christianity, and especially Roman Catholic.

    According to Central Statistics Office, there were 4.61 million of inhabitants in Ireland in April 2014. People speak English but in the Republic of Ireland, the official language is the Gaelic ; even if this language is less and less spoken.



    Gaelic Regular

  • The conflict in Ireland, started in 19th Century. In fact, Ireland was under the British domination because Ireland is integrated into the United Kingdom of Great Britain by the Act of Union since 1801, so Irish wanted their independence.


    It is in Ireland, in 1169 that began 700 years of Norman and English’s power. Then, English and Scottish Protestants decided to colonize Ireland from 1534 to 1691 and the religious conflict was born, even if it was less present when American and famine came in Ireland in 1846 for 3 years.


    Ireland as an independent country with religious conflictsIn 1914 the Home Rule was signed by King George V, to give internal autonomy to Ireland, while remaining under the supervision of the British crown, but it wasn’t up because of WWI.


    Ireland as an independent country with religious conflictsAfter the World War I, while Irish wanted their independence, the Protestants people didn’t want to be attached to a catholic country so they also wanted their own country. The 21st  december 1921,  Ireland and Great-Britain made a deal: the North of the island, called Northern Ireland, staid British and the South became the Republic of Ireland, an independent country. So, since 1921 the Republic of Ireland is constituted by 26 counties and the 6 other countries belong to Northern Ireland.

    In 1937, the state became known as Eire, Ireland in English. Ireland joined the European Economic Community in 1973, which allows it to receive support in the 80s, and achieve one of the world's highest economic growth rates, with a massive emigration, mostly coming from Asia and Eastern Europe. This period, in the 1990s is called “Celtic Tiger”.

     In 1960’s there were so many conflicts between Catholic and Protestants because Protestants were discriminated in the Republic of Ireland and the Catholics didn’t have any rights in Northern Ireland. One of the attack was in 1968 when Ulster Volunteer Force and Ordre Orangiste decided to violently attack the demonstrators. And this conflict between Protestants and Catholics still exists nowadays.

    Then, there was the bloody Sunday on the 30th January 1972. British army opened fire on the demonstrators. 14 persons died and there were hundreds of wounded people. After this attack, it was not finished because Irish Republican Army, in response of the Bloody Friday, committed a terrorist attack with a total of 22 bombs.

    Ireland as an independent country with religious conflicts

    In 1980’s, some Irish (like Bobby Sands) try to stop the violence with a peaceful method but nothing changed


    Ireland as an independent country with religious conflictsIreland as an independent country with religious conflictsIreland as an independent country with religious conflicts


    Finally, people had to wait for 1998 because Ireland and England found a deal to calm the situation: this is The Good Friday Agreement. That’s meant a recognition by the British government for the first time as the "Irish dimension"; the principle that the people of the island of Ireland as a whole can solve the problems between North and South by mutual consent, without external intervention allows to obtain the agreement of nationalists and republicans.  

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  • First of all, Ireland is a parliamentary democracy, composed by a President, an Executive branch and a Legislative Branch.


    The current President of Ireland was elected in 2011 and is called Michael D.Higgins. In 2018, there will be new elections and the people can vote for a new President or they can choose to elect him another time, because the mandate is renewable once. He lives in Áras an Uachtaráin in Dublin. The President of Ireland has mainly a ceremonial role but he also composes the legislative branch, called 'Oireachtas’ with the Parliament.

    Irish politic system

    Michael D.Higgins


     By the way, the Parliament is composed of two elected houses.

    The first one is the House of Representatives (Dáil Éireann). It has the power to pass laws and to appoint and replace the Taoiseach (Prime Minister). It meets since 1922 in the Leinster House in Dublin. It has 166 deputies (called Teachta  Dálas).

    The second one is the Senate ( the Seanad Éireann ). It consists of sixty members called Senators who divide into groups supporting and opposing Government business when voting on issues.

    •       11 are nominated by the Taoiseach. 
    •             6 are elected by certain national universities.
    •           43 are elected from special vocational panels of candidates.



    Irish politic system             

    Enda Kenny                                  Joan Burton

    About the Government, it represents the executive power is composed of the Prime Minister (Enda Kenny) who is also called, in Gaelic, the Taoiseach and the Deputy Prime Minister (Joan Bruton) who is called Tánaiste.

    In addition to the Taoiseach, the government is also composed of 15 Ministers.

    All of them are appointed by the President with the approval of or on the nomination of Dáil Éireann.